CAUSES OF INFERTILITY The relationship between reproductive delay and the overall trend contributes to declining fertility rates

: The

modern trend is for women to complete their education and establish their careers before they think of starting a family. The couples often regret their earlier decision to postpone childbearing. Fertility peaks for both sexes in their mid-twenties and then appears to decline steadily in women over thirty and men over forty. The risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, anemia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and miscarriages increases with age. Fibroid tumours and endometriosis are more common in older women which are causes for infertility. Dr Kannagi says the common causes for delay in pregnancy are problems in ovulation, uterus (such as fibroids), the fallopian tubes and clitoris in women. Delay in pregnancy can also be due to “unexplained infertility” where the problem is at a genetic level in the egg or sperm.

Smoking and drinking habits:

Certain toxins in cigarette smoke could alter levels of vital hormones such as oestrogen inducing infertility in women. Heavy drinking can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle as well. Pelvic tuberculosis which is one of the causes is on the rise these days and strikes young women. Also,
multiple cases of sexually transmitted diseases can block the Fallopian tubes.

Decreasing sperm counts in men: It is a worldwide phenomenon these days. By the time men marry, smoking down the years and the stresses of modern lifestyle would have lowered their sperm count. Overheating of testicles due to high fever, hot water baths and saunas can cause this problem and so also can usage of lubricants in condoms, chronic exposure to heavy metals like lead or cadmium, radiation and X-rays. Being in a seated position for hours together, the reproductive organs literally feel the heat, which contributes to infertility.

FERTILITY PEAKS FOR
BOTH SEXES IN THEIR
MID-TWENTIES AND
THEN APPEARS TO
DECLINE STEADILY IN
WOMEN OVER THIRTY
AND MEN OVER FORTY.


Environmental factors

These are overexposure to toxins, air pollutants, chemicals, pesticides, chemicals from plastics, etc. Anabolic steroids and drugs definitely damage the sperm and change testicular functioning. A recer report from Europe says theuse of mobile phones can lowe- sperm counts.

It is widely believed the’ wearing tight pants can cause damage to the testicles due t: overheating of the crotch area It can also cause yeast arc urinary tract infections women. Further more, some couples also land in unplanne: pregnancy and end up terminating it, which renders the women vulnerable to blocks – the tubes and other causes c infertility.

The relationship betwee- stress and infertility: While there s little doubt that infertility cause; considerable stress, the quest:’ whether stress reduction ca- enhance pregnancy rates is still ve- controversial. Stress interferes v* ~ hormone production, increases hee- rate and blood pressure and als: constricts the blood vessels, leac to difficulty in the making of sper~: and achieving full erection in the ca:- of men. In women, under stress, body undergoes certain hormc-: changes which leads to irregu a periods and at times stops ovula: :_ altogether. Long working hours, p:: eating habits, lack of slee: excessive alcohol and coffee – a contribute to stress. Most of “• body’s energy goes into sirrra survival and not reproduction.

Rigorous dieting and exercis coupled with stress could redt fertility in women to a great exte~

One of the factors of reproduc’ q failure was believed to be the re;. of psychological and emoti:*a factors. But modern research sh:« that there is little evidence to sup:. this statement which unburdens couple by relieving them of.

CHANGING FERTILITY PATTERNS A range of factors cause infertility. Here is how. By Sudha Chandrasekaran

etting pregnant may seem like the easiest thing in the world, but it is actually not so for many people. If you are taken aback by the sheer number of childless couples today, you will be more troubled by the prediction that infertility will continue to create anguish for many more couples in the next few years. From time immemorial the problem of infertility has challenged science, complicated further by religious beliefs and superstitious practices. Today huge strides have been made worldwide by ART /

Artificial Reproduction Techniques) to redress this problem. So, cheer up.

One of the basic needs of all human beings is to have children. Unfortunately in 15 per cent of couples, conception does not occur. It is estimated that both men and women are equally responsible for 80 per cent of infertility problems and the remaining 20 per cent are due to other factors.

Remember that telling moment in Karan Johar’s blockbuster KANK? As a passionate Rishi (Abhishek)

Bachchan) tries to get close to his wife Maya (Rani), she stares at the ceiling coldly, leaving him frustrate: at the turn his life is taking Thousands of young married couple; across the country identifier themselves with the characters Infertility can play havoc in = marriage. Procreation complicate: today by lifestyle, aspirations a-: work pressures. “Many couples ten: to think the body can be programme: to do certain things at certain times t does not work that way. This frenz e: lifestyle is taking a toll on the fert *| of couples,” says lead’*: gynaecologist Dr Asha of Ran Hospital, Coimbatore. Als: increasing industrialisati: is polluting our enviro– ment with devastatr effects on human hea~ and fertility. Dr Asha reca. i treating a patient who ha been told as a child t* having relationship witt” woman was wrong. His uffered till he agreed to counselled and finally knowing that sex was a part of marriage, his conceived.

Infertility specialis: Kannagi Uthraraj Coimbatore says t spect of sexual dysfuno:’ here the partner is unat a perform is hardly discus As there are arti’

methods in this field, the dysfunction part is relegated to the background. This male sexual dysfunction can shatter a young couple’s life by affecting their sexual procreative and marital fulfilment and often results in unconsummated marriages, infertility and divorce. Her most peculiar case involved a young couple who were great friends but did not want to get into a regular marital relationship. They chose the easy way out, having two babies through artificial insemination.

DRY RAJASTHA

This is a typical vegetable (long beans) available in Rajasthan. These days it is available dry in packets in big departmental stores.

INGREDIENTS:

2 cups of dried sangria 2 cups of curd 2 tbsp of oil 2 dried red chillies 1 tsp of amchur powder 1/2 tsp of annar dana powder 1 tsp of jeera powder 1 tbsp of coriander powder 1/4 tsp of haldi powder – optional 1 tsp or more of red chilli powder

Soak the sangria in curd for 2 hours. Drain out the curd and then soak the sangria in 300 ml of lukewarm water, adding salt to taste. Leave aside for 1 hour for it to soften. Drain out all the water and keep aside. Heat the oil in a pan and add the dried chillies and allow to splutter. Lower the heat and the boiled sangria and all the spices. Stir on low heat and continue to cook on low heat stirring from time to time for at least 8-10 minutes. Add a few tsp
of water if required. Once the spices are cooked, remove and serve the sangria with bajra ki roti.

MUSHROOM IN ONIONS AND TOMATOES

INGREDIENTS:

200 gm of mushrooms – button or oyster

2 tsp of ginger-garlic paste 2 onions sliced

2 tomatoes cut into small pieces

  • tbsp of onion paste
  • tbsp of tomato paste 1 tsp of red chilli paste 1/2 tsp of haldi powder 1 tsp of jeera powder
  • tbsp of coriander powder
  • tsp of oil salt to taste

Cut the mushroom into small pieces. Wash well and keep aside. Heat the oil and fry the onion and ginger-garlic paste till the onions are translucent. Lower the heat and mix in the rest of the pastes and the spices. Stir and fry over medium heat, adding 2 tsp of water and stirring all the time till a fine aroma rises, (this should take only 2-3 minutes) Lower the heat and add the mushroom pieces. Stir gently adding salt to taste. Cover with a lid and cook till the mushrooms are tender and the preparation is dry. Serve with parathas or rotis.

LENTIL PATTIES

(kola chane ke kebabs)

INGREDIENTS:

  • cup of kala chana
  • cups of mashed potatoes 1/2 cup of satu powder

1/2 cup of besan – gram flour 2 tsp of oil

  • tsp of red chilli powder
  • tsp of lemon juice
  • tsp of garlic paste
  • tsp of coriander leaves – optional

oil for pan-frying

Soak the chanas overnight an: | then boil in salted water in : pressure cooker till very tende

Allow to cool and then coarseI]

grind in a mixer. Place this in : mixing bowl and add the rest : the ingredients. Blend with yo- fingers. Divide the mixture in:: portions and shape each port: into a patti or ‘tikkia’. Heat oil in : non-stick pan and pan-fry the kebabs or tikkies turning once :

twice. Fry over low fire so that tn kebabs are crispy and cooke nicely. Serve with ketchup :i mustard sauce.

 

CHANGING

FERTILITY PATTERNS

A range of factors cause infertility. Here is how.

By Sudha Chandrasekaran

etting pregnant may seem like the easiest thing in the world, but it is actually not so for many people. If you are taken aback by the sheer number of childless couples today, you will be more troubled by the prediction that infertility will continue to create anguish for many more couples in the next few years. From time immemorial the problem of infertility has challenged science, complicated further by religious beliefs and superstitious practices. Today huge strides have been made worldwide by ART /
(Artificial Reproduction Techniques) to redress this problem. So, cheer up.

One of the basic needs of all human beings is to have children. Unfortunately in 15 per cent of couples, conception does not occur. It is estimated that both men and women are equally responsible for 80 per cent of infertility problems and the remaining 20 per cent are due to other factors.

Remember that telling moment in Karan Johar’s blockbuster KANK? As a passionate Rishi (Abhishek

Bachchan) tries to get close to his wife Maya (Rani), she stares at the ceiling coldly, leaving him frustrate: at the turn his life is taking Thousands of young married couple; across the country identifier themselves with the characters Infertility can play havoc in = marriage. Procreation complicate: today by lifestyle, aspirations a-: work pressures. “Many couples ten: to think the body can be programme: to do certain things at certain times t does not work that way. This frenz e: lifestyle is taking a toll on the fert *| of couples,” says lead’*: gynaecologist Dr Asha of Ran Hospital, Coimbatore. Als: increasing industrialisati: is polluting our enviro– ment with devastatr effects on human hea~ and fertility. Dr Asha reca. i treating a patient who ha been told as a child t* having relationship witt” woman was wrong. His uffered till he agreed to counselled and finally knowing that sex was a part of marriage, his conceived.

Infertility specialis: Kannagi Uthraraj Coimbatore says t spect of sexual dysfuno:’ here the partner is unat a perform is hardly discus As there are arti’ ::